Sunday, April 22, 2012

Actinomycosis is an infectious bacterial disease

Actinomycosis is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Actinomyces species [1], such as Actinomyces israelii or A. gerencseriae. It can also be caused by Propionibacterium propionicus, and the condition is likely to be polymicrobial aerobic anaerobic infection. [2]

Actinomycosis is rare in humans, but rather frequently in cattle as a disease called lumpy jaw. This name refers to the large abscesses that grow on the head and neck of the animal. It can also affect pigs, horses and dogs, and wild animals less frequently and sheep. See: Actinomycosis in animals.
 
Signs and symptomsThe disease is characterized by the formation of painful abscesses in the mouth, lungs, [3] [4] or the gastrointestinal tract. [2] actinomycosis abscesses grow as the disease progresses, often for several months. In severe cases, which can penetrate the surrounding bone and muscle to the skin, where they break open and leak large amounts of pus. The leakage current through the sinuses purulent containing "sulfur granules" in fact do not contain sulfur, but is similar to the particles. These granules contain bacteria progeny.

Causes
Actinomycosis Grocott stain
Gram stainActinomycosis Actinomycosis is usually caused by any of several members of the bacterial genus Actinomyces. These bacteria are usually anaerobes. [5] in animals that normally live in small spaces between the teeth and gums, causing infection only when they multiply freely in anoxic environments. A human being often affected have recently had dental work, poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, or radiation therapy causing local tissue damage to the oral mucosa, all of which predispose a person to develop actinomycosis. They are also normal commensals in the cecum, so that abdominal actinomycosis may occur after removal of the appendix. The three most common sites of infection are the bad teeth, lungs and intestines. Importantly, actinomycosis not occur in isolation from other bacteria. This infection depends on other bacteria (gram positive, gram negative cocci) to assist in tissue invasion.

TreatmentActinomyces bacteria are sensitive to penicillin, which is often used to treat actinomycosis. In cases of allergy to penicillin, doxycycline is used. Sulfonamides such as sulfamethoxazole can be used as an alternative scheme to a total daily dose of 2-4 grams. Response to treatment is slow and may take months.

 EpidemiologyThere is a greater incidence in men between the ages of 20 and 60 years than in women. [6] Before antibiotic treatments were available, the incidence in the Netherlands and Germany was 1 per 100,000 people per year. Incidence in the U.S. in the 1970s was 1 per 300,000 people per year, while in Germany in 1984, an estimated 1 in 40,000 people a year. [6] The use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) has increased the incidence of genitourinary actinomycosis in females. The incidence of oral actinomycosis, which is more difficult to diagnose, has increased. [6]

 HistoryIn 1877, pathologist Otto Bollinger described the presence of Actinomyces bovis in cattle, and shortly afterwards, James Israel discovered Actinomyces israelii in humans. In 1890, Eugen Bostroem isolated the causative organism of a culture of grain, grasses, and soil. After the discovery Bostroem had a general error that actinomycosis was a mycosis that affected individuals who chewed grass or straw.

The violinist Joseph Joachim died of actinomycosis.

 References
1"actinomycosis" in Dorland's Medical Dictionary
2 A b GHW Bowden (1996). Actinomycosis in: Baron Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.). (4 th ed.). University of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. (A library through NCBI).
3^ Brook I. Actinomycosis: diagnosis and management. South Med J.2008; 101:1019-23.
4^ Mabeza, GF, J Macfarlane (March 2003). "Pulmonary actinomycosis." European Respiratory Journal (ERS Journals Ltd) 21 (3): 545-551. doi: 10.1183/09031936.03.00089103. PMID 12662015. http://erj.ersjournals.com/cgi/content/full/21/3/545. Retrieved on 21/07/2008.
5^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4 th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.
6 abc Wolff K, Goldsmith LA Katz S, Gilchrist BA, Paller A, Leffell DJ and (2007). Fitzpatrick Dermatology in General Medicine, 7th Ed .. McGraw-Hill.
 Also readingRandolph HL Wong Alan DL Sihoe, KH Thung, Innes YP Wan, Margaret by them, Anthony PC Yim (June 2004). "Actinomycosis: an often forgotten diagnosis." Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Asia. 12 (2): 165-7. Say